So what exactly is a text set? And can it be used in the secondary classroom?
I first encountered text sets while sitting in the classroom of my master teacher. It was my first year of teaching and needless to say, I was overwhelmed. The conversation was centered on my American Literature 11th grade English class. We were supposed to follow the textbook, in chronological order, meaning that we started the year with very challenging literature (Puritans! Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God! The Crucible! The Scarlet Letter! Oh my!) and many of my students were not ready for such difficult texts. At this point in time, I was definitely in the “consciously incompetent” phase of initial teaching – that is to say that I was fully aware of the fact that I did not have a clue how to teach these difficult texts. I distinctly remember my master teacher (a gifted teacher and reading specialist) asking me “What are the barriers for your students? What do they need to know in order to read this material?” And she gently guided me toward the idea of text sets. The first text set that I ever created was centered on the idea of the Salem witch trials and McCarthyism, to accompany our reading of The Crucible.
In her book Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?, Cris Tovani writes about the importance of connecting students with accessible texts and how text sets can be used in the single subject classroom. Text sets are not new in the elementary world. But they are not as common in the secondary classroom, and Tovani points out that text sets are a great opportunity for several reasons. This textbook alternative connects students with a wide variety of texts, introduces different options for discovering new material, new viewpoints, creates as opportunity to connect with current events, and helps students build background knowledge. Tovani writes: “Text sets are not designed to catch kids who aren’t reading. Text sets are designed to give reluctant readers a choice of interesting and accessible text. They provide opportunities for learning and practicing reading strategies.”
A good text set will include a variety of information and reading in different structures (informational, narrative, poetry, etc), different lengths, but will maintain a common theme or topic. The idea is to help your students get information, make valuable text connections, and achieve a deeper understanding of the selected topic or theme.
There are numerous ways to use a text set in your classroom. I have been in some elementary classrooms where the teachers have multiple text sets available to all students at all times and they are in constant motion! It’s amazing. Here are some ideas for how I like to use a text set in the secondary classroom. When creating a text set, there are several criteria that I like to keep in mind.
4-5 pieces of text. More than 5 pieces of text can be overwhelming for students. Keep this in mind as you will need to allow reading time in class for the text set. I think 4 is a good minimum as you want to include enough pieces to allow for multiple text-to-text connections. Of course these numbers are flexible and a lot depends on what you are including in your text set. If you have more than one visual piece, you may want to include 6 or 7 pieces. On the other hand, if you have a lot of text for students to read, you may want to stick with only 4 pieces of text. Or you may want to create multiple text sets (5 or 6 sets, each different with 20-30 different texts total) and rotate them through your class over a two week period. This could be especially practical and useful when tackling a subject such as World War II in a history class.
Visual. This may be a picture or a piece of artwork related to the theme or topic of your text set. This visual may speak to your student artists, who are able to make a connection and discuss the artwork. Another important point to including a visual in your text set is the absence of language. Asking the students to describe and discuss this visual will help them develop their own academic language. This process can be illuminating for students who have not previously thought about the possibility of analyzing and discussing art. It is one more way for students to make a connection.
Poetry. Can you find a poem on the same subject or theme of your text set? You may have some poets in your classroom who would love to read a poem. You may also have some students who are wary of poetry and discussing a poem is an intimidating idea. In both cases, it is important for students to have multiple exposures to poetry and yet another opportunity for discussion and connections.
A short, simple narrative. This may be achieved by including a picture book or short story. A narrative structure can be very important. I think this is especially important if you are asking students to read a significant amount of informational text. If you are a content area teaching who is creating a text set on a topic that will complement your primary textbook, this may be especially important for a successful text set. Reading a challenging chapter in a biology book is intimidating for many students. Reading a simple story of a virus may give them just the right window to make a connection and help them understand some of the academic language used to discuss viruses in their high school level textbook. Remember, a good text set includes reading at a variety of levels. This isn’t meant to take away from your challenging reading or “dumb down” your curriculum; this is meant to enhance your topic and give your students information at multiple levels so they can engage with the reading. (Curious about more picture books for text sets? Read more about Picture Books, Not Just for Kids!)
Possibilities for text sets:
- Short Stories
- Magazine articles
- Newspaper articles
- Picture books
- Biographical information/short biographies
- Song lyrics
- Journals or letters
- Charts or graphs
Another question that I hear from teachers is “can I use a text set if I’m not an English teacher?” The answer is yes, absolutely! I have seen text sets used in high school science classrooms, history, home economics, business, computers, foreign languages, even math – the possibilities are endless! In working with content area teachers and English language arts teachers, I have read teacher-created text sets on a wide array of topics and themes, including
- Ancient Greece
- Civil War
- Japanese Internment Camps (to accompany reading of Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne & James Houston)
- Homelessness and mental health (to accompany reading of The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls)
- Solar System
- Inventions of Mesopotamia
- Roman Gladiators and the Colosseum
- Edgar Allan Poe
- Race and identity
- Ecology of rainforests
As you can see, the possibilities truly are endless. Text sets can be used to help students connect with accessible texts and so much more. It is possible to use text sets as jumping off points for reading a new novel, group projects, essay assignments, journal writing, presentations – be creative in your classroom! How can you use a text set?
Have you used a text set in your secondary classroom? Please share!